Gravitational waves they are ripples in the fabric of Spacetime, and these ripples travel through the Universe at the speed of light, taking with them secrets that have long been hidden from those who are trying to solve their mysterious mysteries. These ripple propagators, which have often been compared to riots in a pond, were first preached by Albert Einstein in his General Theory of Relativity (1915), when his mathematics showed that massive accelerated objects – such as neutron stars and black holes – in orbit around the other, I will extend Spacetime so that distorted "waves" of Space move away shouting away from the source. In October 2017, the scientists announced that they had made the historical detection of the gravitational wave, in addition to the light emitted, originating from the dramatic hit of the two neutron stars. This marks the first time such a cosmic event has been observed in gravitational waves and light.
The discovery was made with the use of the United States Gravitational Wave Interferometric Wave Observer (LIGO) ; Europe-based Virgo detector; and about 70 ground and space observatories.
Neutron stars they are stellar ghosts, left as relics by massive stars, which have been ruined by smithereens in a violent explosion of catastrophic supernovae – thus announcing their death as burning with hydrogen. main sequence stars on the Hertzsprung-Russell Stellar Evolution Diagram. Neutron stars are the densest and smallest stars known to exist in the Universe. Since the two neutron stars, which were observed, spiral into each other, they emit gravitational waves that were detectable for about 100 seconds. When struck, a shot of light in the form of high energy gamma rays They were shot in space, and observed by astronomers on Earth about 2 seconds after gravitational waves. In the days and weeks following this dramatic, devastating cosmic encounter, other forms of light – or electromagnetic radiation – Including X-rays, ultraviolet, optical, infrared, and radio waves – were detected.
The new observations have given astronomers an unprecedented gift – the opportunity to investigate the collision of a convicted duo of neutron stars. Indeed, observations made by the United States Gemini observers , the European Very Large Telescope (VLT) , and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) , shows signs of newly synthesized atomic matter – including heavy elements gold and platinum. This revelation has solved a decades-long mystery in which about 50% of all atomic elements heavier than iron are produced.
The birth of the Big Bang of the Universe, which is believed to have happened nearly 14 billion years ago, produced only the brightest of atomic elements – hydrogen, hydrogen, 39; helium, and traces of beryllium and lithium. All atomic elements heavier than helium, so called metals by astronomers, they were produced in the nuclear fusion heart of stars. This process, called it stellar nucleosynthesis, churned out ever heavier and heavier atomic elements – such as carbon, oxygen, neon, potassium, and calcium – until iron. The mystery, which has puzzled scientists for years, is where and how heavier atomic elements than iron are produced. One of the favorite explanations presented is that the heaviest of all atomic elements are manufactured in the fiery fire of a supernova conflagration – and new discoveries certainly reinforce this theory.
U LIGO Virgo the results are published in the October 16, 2017 issue Physical Review Letters. Additional research papers from the LINK and Virgo collaborations and the astronomical community have been presented or accepted for publication in many different scientific journals.
"It is tremendously exciting to experience a rare event that transforms our knowledge of the functioning of the Universe. This discovery realizes a long-standing goal that many of us have, that is, observed at the same time rare cosmic events in traditional use. how far and only through the National Science Foundation & # 39; s (NSF's) Four decades of investment in gravitational wave observers, coupled with telescopes observing from radio at wavelengths, we are able to expand our opportunity to detect new cosmic phenomena and unite a fresh narrative of the physics of the stars in their deaths, "explained Dr. France A. Cordova on October 16, 2017 NSF Press Release. Dr. Cordova is director of the NSF , what funds LINK.
Although Einstein predicted the existence of the gravitational wave in 1915, it was not until a century later that its true existence in nature was verified. In the fall of 2015, extremely sensitive detectors received the gravitational wave that formed during the turbulent merger of two black holes. The gravitational wave is unlike any other wave – despite its frequent comparison to ripples in a water pool. As the gravitational wave ripples through the Universe, they alternate surrender and move away from the Spacetime continuum. This is why gravitational waves distort the geometry of the fabric of space itself. Even though accelerated masses create gravitational waves, they can only be measured when the mass is extremely large.
The indications that it is possible for astronomers to find these Spacetime waves returned in 1974, twenty years after Einstein's death & # 39; s. This year, two astronomers, Dr. Russell Alan Hulse and Dr. Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr., using Observers of Arecibo Radio in Puerto Rico, discover a press binary – a pair of extremely dense, massive, city-like neutrons, orbiting each other. Pulsars they are very young, rapidly, and regularly emerge neutron stars. U press binary was named after his two discoveries (a Hulse-Taylor Binary ), but it is also commonly called PSR B1913 + 16.
Knowing that the Hulse-Taylor B pulsar inary the system could be used to test Einstein's prediction & # 39; s, the two astronomers begin to measure how the period of the stars & # 39; orbit evolves over time. After almost ten years watching the young duo neutron stars , astronomers have come to the conclusion that both pulsars they were blinking at each other – getting closer and closer closer go to precisely the rate provided in General Relativity. This one pulsar system has been closely observed by astronomers for almost fifty years, and alterations in its orbit agree so perfectly with Einstein & # 39; Predictions that there is little doubt that this dense duo emits gravitational waves.
Since then, many astrophysicists have observed the point of press radio broadcasts, and have had similar results. This also indicates the existence of these mysterious, noticeable ripples in Spacetime's fabric.
However, until recently, these confirmations are always derived from indirect studies or mathematical calculations – and not through the direct "physical" observations required. Lastly, September 14, 2015 LIGO Gravitational Wave Interferometer directly collecting and distortions in Spacetime resulted from the propagating ripple of the gravitational wave. These Spacetime riots were formed by a ball duo with black holes, far and wide. Certainly, this discovery will go down in history as one of the greatest achievements in astronomy.
The 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics
LINK is a collaborative project with over one thousand scientists from over twenty countries participating. Together, researchers have considered a vision for almost half a century. In honor of his work, the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Dr. Rainer Weiss, Dr. Kip S. Thorne, by Dr. Barry C. Barish. By the mid-1970s, Dr. Weiss had already analyzed possible sources of background noise that would conflict with the measurements, and also designed a gravitational wave detector, a laser-based interferometer, which could overcome the unwanted breath. Initially, Dr. Kip Thorne and Dr. Weiss were convinced that the gravitational wave could be detected and bring about a revolution in our knowledge of the Universe.
To date, different forms of electromagnetic radiation and particles, such as cosmic rays or neutrinos, have been used to investigate the mysterious mysteries of the Cosmos. However, the gravitational wave is a direct testimony to disturbances in Space itself. This is a new and different thing, opening a new window on previously unseen worlds.
The gravitational wave, traveling from the black hole dance duo, took 1.3 billion years to reach the LINK detector in the United States The sign was very weak by the time it reached Earth, but it's already used to its promise to create a revolution in astrophysics. The gravitational wave provides a completely new way for astronomers to observe the most violent events in space, and test the limits of our scientific knowledge.
Gravitational waves can reach our planet from where they originated in distant corners of the Cosmos. They are the result of a catastrophic event, and the first direct observation of their existence in Space, opens an unprecedented window into some of the secrets of the universe's best kept. This is because traveling Spacetime rips carry with them important information about their violent origins that could not be obtained otherwise. The reason for this is that the gravitational wave can access events that electromagnetic radiation cannot achieve. Astrophysicists are now observing the cosmos, which uses gravity as a new and new instrument – such as light. For example, black holes cannot be observed using traditional methods, such as radio and optical telescopes.
The use of gravitational wave astronomy is particularly useful for scientific cosmologists because they can be used to observe the furthest, deepest, darkest secrets of the Universe child. This is not possible using conventional methods because the primordial universe was opaque to electromagnetic radiation. Also, accurate measurements of the gravitational wave can be used by scientists to test Einstein's. s Theory of General Relativity. Using gravitational waves, astrophysicists can gain an unprecedented show of what really caused the birth of the Universe nearly $ 14 billion years ago.
Fortunately for life on our planet, while the violent origins of the gravitational wave can be highly destructive, when the time comes there are millions of times weaker – and far less destructive. In fact, at the time of the gravitational wave, which propagated out of the dancing duo of black holes – first observed by LINK– finally it had arrived on Earth, they were thousands of times smaller than an atomic nucleus.
Gravitational waves travel at the speed of light, filling the entire universe, as Einstein described in General Relativity. They always form when a mass accelerates – for example, ballerina-type pirouettes of a duo of black holes, flying around each other, performing their fantastic cosmic dance. Einstein was certain that scientists would never be able to measure these Spacetime ripples. However, the LINK project & # 39; s two large laser interferometers, to measure a change thousands of times smaller than an atomic nucleus, was able to detect these wavy waves as they passed the Earth. This technique is something new and different, opening up a bunch of fascinating characters kept secret long ago from invisible worlds. By catching the reflections, scientists can now interpret their mysterious message.
Exploring the Mysteries of the Cosmos Using Ripple Spacetime
The gravitational signal, emitted by the scattering of the neutron star, was named GW170817 , and was first detected on August 17, 2017 at 8:41 am EDT. Detection was made by the duo of identical LINK detectors located in Hanford, Washington, and Livingston, Louisiana. The signal provided by the third detector, Virgo , located in Pisa, Italy, provided an improvement in the location of the cosmic collision. At the moment, LINK was approaching the end of its second observation race since it was updated in a program called Advanced LIGO , while Virgo he had started his first race immediately after completing his own named upgrade Virgo Advanced.
U NSF- funded LINK The observatories were designed, built, and operated by the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge. Virgo is funded by the National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) in Italy and a National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) in France, and operated by the European Gravitational Observatory (EGO) .
Each observatory is composed of two long, L-shaped tunnels, at the center of which a laser beam is divided into two. Slight light in the length of each tunnel is reflected then in the direction that comes from a suspended mirror. In the absence of the gravitational wave, the laser light in each tunnel must return to the place where the beams were split at exactly the same time. However, if a gravitational wave wanders through the observatory, every laser beam will change. s arrival. This creates an excellent, barely noticeable, alteration in the security sign of the observatory.
August 17, 2017 LINK & # 39; s Real-time data analysis software captures a powerful signal of gravitational waves from space in one of two LINK detectors. At the same time, the Gamma-ray range monitor aboard NASA & # 39; s Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has detected a range of gamma rays. LIGO Virgo the analysis software put the two signals together and saw that it was extremely unlikely to be a mere coincidence. Yet another automated one LINK The analysis suggested that there is a matching gravitational wave signal in the other LINK detector. Rapid gravitational wave detection from u LIGO Virgo team together with Close s Gamma ray detection has enabled the launch of tracking by telescopes all over the Earth.
U LINK The data indicated that a duo of astrophysical objects, located at a relatively close distance of about 130 million light-years from Earth, had spiraled toward the other side. Objects were not as massive as binary black holes. Instead, the dance duo was estimated to be about 1.1 to 1.6 times the solar mass – which is in the range of mass of neutron stars. A neutron star is about 12 miles in diameter and is so dense that a spoon full of neutron stars sports an impressive mass of about a billion tons.
"It immediately appeared that the source was likely to be neutron stars, the other encoded source that we hope to see – and promising the world we will see. To inform detailed models of the inner workings of neutron stars and They produce emissions, to the most fundamental such physics General Relativity , this event is so rich. It is a gift that will continue to give, "said Dr. David Shoemaker on October 16, 2017 NSF Press Release. The Shoemaker is a spokesman for the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and senior research scientist at MIT & # 39; s Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research.
Often in science, when a mystery seems to be solved, new mysteries emerge in its place. A short range of gamma rays observed by Close was one of the closest to Earth seen so far, but was surprisingly weak due to its distance. Scientists are starting to come up with new models for what could be. New knowledge will likely be important for years to come.
Close managed to pinpoint a place for GW170817 which was later confirmed and refined greatly with the coordinates derived from the combined Discover LIGO Virgo. With these coordinates, observers around the world were able, hours later, to begin exploring the part of the sky where the sign was believed to have originated. A new point of light, resembling a new star, was first discovered by optical telescopes. Finally about 70 observers on the ground and in space discovered the event at its individual wavelength.
"This observation opens the window for a long-awaited" multi-messenger "& astronomy. This is the first time we have observed a cataclysmic astrophysical event in both gravitational and electromagnetic waves – or cosmic messengers. it captures the properties of neutron stars in ways that can only be achieved with electromagnetic radiation, "explained Caltech & # 39; s Dr. David H. Reitze on October 16, 2017 NSF Press Release.
The dancers and their dancing
A general picture is emerging. This image further confirms that the first sign of the gravitational wave actually came from an inspiring duo of condemned neutron stars.
Picture this : About 130 million years ago, the two neutron stars were captured, in their final, fatal moments, just before their tragic merger. At this point, the denizens of the dense duo were separated by just 200 miles. The two dancers start meeting, as they get closer and closer, and as they did so, they closed the small distance between them. As they meet, in their final opening, they tear and distort their surrounding region of Spacetime – emitting energy in the form of a gravitational wave, before breaking one with the other, with deadly results.
As the two neutron stars clash, most of the duo came together in a single, solitary, ultra-light object – thus emitting a "ray of fire" of gamma rays. The first gamma-ray measurements, combined with gravitational wave detection, also provide confirmation for Einstein & # 39; s General Theory of Relativity , which predicts that the gravitational wave will ripple in Space at the speed of light.
Theorists have predicted that what follows the initial fireball is a kilonova – a cosmic explosion in which the remaining material from the fusion of neutron stars, which shines light, is released from the immediate region far into the space between the stars. Recent light-based observations reveal that heavy elements, such as lead and gold, are born in these deadly matches, and are finally distributed throughout the universe.
The first direct detection of a kilonova was in 2013, in association with the gamma ray of race doubt 130603B GRB , where the infrared emission weakness from afar kilonova was stained using a HST.
In the weeks and months ahead, telescopes around the world continue to observe combat following the fusion of neutron stars – and gather additional evidence on different stages of the fusion, their interaction with their environment, and processes. which create the heaviest. atomic elements in the Universe.
Dr. Fred Raab of Caltech, and LINK associate director for observation operations, observed on October 16, 2017 NSF Press Release that "When we first planned LIGO in the late 1980s, we knew we would eventually need an international network of gravitational wave observers, such as Europe, to help locate gravitational wave sources so that light-based telescopes can track and study the ardor of events such as this fusion of neutron stars. Today we can say that ours Gravitational wave networks will work brilliantly with light-based observers for use in a new era in astronomy, and will improve with the expected addition of observers in Japan and Japan. ;India ".